Air-gapped Installation On Linux

The air-gapped installation is almost the same as the online installation except that you must create a local registry to host Docker images. This tutorial demonstrates how to install KubeSphere and Kubernetes in an air-gapped environment.

Step 1: Prepare Linux Hosts

Please see the requirements for hardware and operating system shown below. To get started with multi-node installation, you need to prepare at least three hosts according to the following requirements.

System requirements

SystemsMinimum Requirements (Each node)
Ubuntu 16.04, 18.04CPU: 2 Cores, Memory: 4 G, Disk Space: 100 G
Debian Buster, StretchCPU: 2 Cores, Memory: 4 G, Disk Space: 100 G
CentOS 7.xCPU: 2 Cores, Memory: 4 G, Disk Space: 100 G
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7CPU: 2 Cores, Memory: 4 G, Disk Space: 100 G
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15/openSUSE Leap 15.2CPU: 2 Cores, Memory: 4 G, Disk Space: 100 G

Note

KubeKey uses /var/lib/docker as the default directory where all Docker related files, including images, are stored. It is recommended you add additional storage volumes with at least 100G mounted to /var/lib/docker and /mnt/registry respectively. See fdisk command for reference.

Node requirements

  • It’s recommended that your OS be clean (without any other software installed). Otherwise, there may be conflicts.
  • Ensure your disk of each node is at least 100G.
  • All nodes must be accessible through SSH.
  • Time synchronization for all nodes.
  • sudo/curl/openssl should be used in all nodes.
  • docker must be installed by yourself in an offline environment.

KubeKey can install Kubernetes and KubeSphere together. The dependency that needs to be installed may be different based on the Kubernetes version to be installed. You can refer to the list below to see if you need to install relevant dependencies on your node in advance.

DependencyKubernetes Version ≥ 1.18Kubernetes Version < 1.18
socatRequiredOptional but recommended
conntrackRequiredOptional but recommended
ebtablesOptional but recommendedOptional but recommended
ipsetOptional but recommendedOptional but recommended

Note

  • In an air-gapped environment, you can install these dependencies using a private package, a RPM package (for CentOS) or a Deb package (for Debian).
  • It is recommended you create an OS image file with all relevant dependencies installed in advance. In this way, you can use the image file directly for the installation of OS on each machine, improving deployment efficiency while not worrying about any dependency issues.

Network and DNS requirements

  • Make sure the DNS address in /etc/resolv.conf is available. Otherwise, it may cause some issues of DNS in clusters.
  • If your network configuration uses Firewall or Security Group, you must ensure infrastructure components can communicate with each other through specific ports. It’s recommended that you turn off the firewall. For more information, refer to Port Requirements.

Example machines

This example includes three hosts as below with the master node serving as the taskbox.

Host IPHost NameRole
192.168.0.2mastermaster, etcd
192.168.0.3node1worker
192.168.0.4node2worker

Step 2: Prepare a Private Image Registry

You can use Harbor or any other private image registries. This tutorial uses Docker registry as an example with self-signed certificates (If you have your own private image registry, you can skip this step).

Use self-signed certificates

  1. Generate your own certificate by executing the following commands:

    mkdir -p certs
    
    openssl req \
    -newkey rsa:4096 -nodes -sha256 -keyout certs/domain.key \
    -x509 -days 36500 -out certs/domain.crt
    
  2. Make sure you specify a domain name in the field Common Name when you are generating your own certificate. For instance, the field is set to dockerhub.kubekey.local in this example.

    self-signed-cert

Start the Docker registry

Run the following commands to start the Docker registry:

docker run -d \
  --restart=always \
  --name registry \
  -v "$(pwd)"/certs:/certs \
  -v /mnt/registry:/var/lib/registry \
  -e REGISTRY_HTTP_ADDR=0.0.0.0:443 \
  -e REGISTRY_HTTP_TLS_CERTIFICATE=/certs/domain.crt \
  -e REGISTRY_HTTP_TLS_KEY=/certs/domain.key \
  -p 443:443 \
  registry:2

Configure the registry

  1. Add an entry to /etc/hosts to map the hostname (i.e. the registry domain name; in this case, it is dockerhub.kubekey.local) to the private IP address of your machine as below.

    # docker registry
    192.168.0.2 dockerhub.kubekey.local
    
  2. Execute the following commands to copy the certificate to a specified directory and make Docker trust it.

    mkdir -p  /etc/docker/certs.d/dockerhub.kubekey.local
    
    cp certs/domain.crt  /etc/docker/certs.d/dockerhub.kubekey.local/ca.crt
    

    Note

    The path of the certificate is related to the domain name. When you copy the path, use your actual domain name if it is different from the one set above.
  3. To verify whether the private registry is effective, you can copy an image to your local machine first, and use docker push and docker pull to test it.

Step 3: Download KubeKey

Similar to installing KubeSphere on Linux in an online environment, you also need to download KubeKey first. Download the tar.gz file, and transfer it to your local machine which serves as the taskbox for installation. After you uncompress the file, execute the following command to make kk executable:

chmod +x kk

Step 4: Prepare Installation Images

As you install KubeSphere and Kubernetes on Linux, you need to prepare an image package containing all the necessary images and download the Kubernetes binary file in advance.

  1. Download the image list file images-list.txt from a machine that has access to the Internet through the following command:

    curl -L -O https://github.com/kubesphere/ks-installer/releases/download/v3.0.0/images-list.txt
    

    Note

    This file lists images under ##+modulename based on different modules. You can add your own images to this file following the same rule. To view the complete file, see Appendix.
  2. Download offline-installation-tool.sh.

    curl -L -O https://github.com/kubesphere/ks-installer/releases/download/v3.0.0/offline-installation-tool.sh
    
  3. Make the .sh file executable.

    chmod +x offline-installation-tool.sh
    
  4. You can execute the command ./offline-installation-tool.sh -h to see how to use the script:

    [email protected]:/home/ubuntu# ./offline-installation-tool.sh -h
    Usage:
       
      ./offline-installation-tool.sh [-l IMAGES-LIST] [-d IMAGES-DIR] [-r PRIVATE-REGISTRY] [-v KUBERNETES-VERSION ]
       
    Description:
      -b                     : save kubernetes' binaries.
      -d IMAGES-DIR          : the dir of files (tar.gz) which generated by `docker save`. default: ./kubesphere-images
      -l IMAGES-LIST         : text file with list of images.
      -r PRIVATE-REGISTRY    : target private registry:port.
      -s                     : save model will be applied. Pull the images in the IMAGES-LIST and save images as a tar.gz file.
      -v KUBERNETES-VERSION  : download kubernetes' binaries. default: v1.17.9
      -h                     : usage message
    
  5. Download the Kubernetes binary file.

    ./offline-installation-tool.sh -b -v v1.17.9 
    

    If you cannot access the object storage service of Google, run the following command instead to add the environment variable to change the source.

    export KKZONE=cn;./offline-installation-tool.sh -b -v v1.17.9 
    

    Note

    • You can change the Kubernetes version downloaded based on your needs. Supported versions: v1.15.12, v1.16.13, v1.17.9 (default) and v1.18.6.

    • After you run the script, a folder kubekey is automatically created. Note that this file and kk must be placed in the same directory when you create the cluster later.

  6. Pull images in offline-installation-tool.sh.

    ./offline-installation-tool.sh -s -l images-list.txt -d ./kubesphere-images
    

    Note

    You can choose to pull images as needed. For example, you can delete ##k8s-images and related images under it in images-list.text if you already have a Kubernetes cluster.

Step 5: Push Images to Your Private Registry

Transfer your packaged image file to your local machine and execute the following command to push it to the registry.

./offline-installation-tool.sh -l images-list.txt -d ./kubesphere-images -r dockerhub.kubekey.local

Note

The domain name is dockerhub.kubekey.local in the command. Make sure you use your own registry address.

Step 6: Create a Cluster

In this tutorial, KubeSphere is installed on multiple nodes, so you need to specify a configuration file to add host information. Besides, for air-gapped installation, pay special attention to .spec.registry.privateRegistry, which must be set to your own registry address. See the complete YAML file below for more information.

Create an example configuration file

Execute the following command to generate an example configuration file for installation:

./kk create config [--with-kubernetes version] [--with-kubesphere version] [(-f | --file) path]

For example:

./kk create config --with-kubesphere -f config-sample.yaml

Note

  • Make sure the Kubernetes version is the one you downloaded.

  • If you do not add the flag --with-kubesphere in the command in this step, KubeSphere will not be deployed unless you install it using the addons field in the configuration file or add this flag again when you use ./kk create cluster later.

Edit the configuration file

Edit the generated configuration file config-sample.yaml. Here is an example for your reference:

Warning

For air-gapped installation, you must specify privateRegistry, which is dockerhub.kubekey.local in this example.
apiVersion: kubekey.kubesphere.io/v1alpha1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: sample
spec:
  hosts:
  - {name: master, address: 192.168.0.2, internalAddress: 192.168.0.2, password: [email protected]}
  - {name: node1, address: 192.168.0.3, internalAddress: 192.168.0.3, password: [email protected]}
  - {name: node2, address: 192.168.0.4, internalAddress: 192.168.0.4, password: [email protected]}
  roleGroups:
    etcd:
    - master
    master:
    - master
    worker:
    - master
    - node1
    - node2
  controlPlaneEndpoint:
    domain: lb.kubesphere.local
    address: ""
    port: "6443"
  kubernetes:
    version: v1.17.9
    imageRepo: kubesphere
    clusterName: cluster.local
  network:
    plugin: calico
    kubePodsCIDR: 10.233.64.0/18
    kubeServiceCIDR: 10.233.0.0/18
  registry:
    registryMirrors: []
    insecureRegistries: []
    privateRegistry: dockerhub.kubekey.local  # Add the private image registry address here. 
  addons: []

---
apiVersion: installer.kubesphere.io/v1alpha1
kind: ClusterConfiguration
metadata:
  name: ks-installer
  namespace: kubesphere-system
  labels:
    version: v3.0.0
spec:
  local_registry: ""
  persistence:
    storageClass: ""
  authentication:
    jwtSecret: ""
  etcd:
    monitoring: true
    endpointIps: localhost
    port: 2379
    tlsEnable: true
  common:
    es:
      elasticsearchDataVolumeSize: 20Gi
      elasticsearchMasterVolumeSize: 4Gi
      elkPrefix: logstash
      logMaxAge: 7
    mysqlVolumeSize: 20Gi
    minioVolumeSize: 20Gi
    etcdVolumeSize: 20Gi
    openldapVolumeSize: 2Gi
    redisVolumSize: 2Gi
  console:
    enableMultiLogin: false  # enable/disable multi login
    port: 30880
  alerting:
    enabled: false
  auditing:
    enabled: false
  devops:
    enabled: false
    jenkinsMemoryLim: 2Gi
    jenkinsMemoryReq: 1500Mi
    jenkinsVolumeSize: 8Gi
    jenkinsJavaOpts_Xms: 512m
    jenkinsJavaOpts_Xmx: 512m
    jenkinsJavaOpts_MaxRAM: 2g
  events:
    enabled: false
    ruler:
      enabled: true
      replicas: 2
  logging:
    enabled: false
    logsidecarReplicas: 2
  metrics_server:
    enabled: true
  monitoring:
    prometheusMemoryRequest: 400Mi
    prometheusVolumeSize: 20Gi
  multicluster:
    clusterRole: none  # host | member | none
  networkpolicy:
    enabled: false
  notification:
    enabled: false
  openpitrix:
    enabled: false
  servicemesh:
    enabled: false

Info

For more information about these parameters, see Multi-node Installation and Kubernetes Cluster Configuration. To enable pluggable components in config-sample.yaml, refer to Enable Pluggle Components for more details.

Step 7: Start Installation

You can execute the following command after you make sure that all steps above are completed.

./kk create cluster -f config-sample.yaml

Warning

After you transfer the executable file kk and the folder kubekey that contains the Kubernetes binary file to the taskbox machine for installation, they must be placed in the same directory before you execute the command above.

Step 8: Verify Installation

When the installation finishes, you can see the content as follows:

#####################################################
###              Welcome to KubeSphere!           ###
#####################################################

Console: http://192.168.0.2:30880
Account: admin
Password: [email protected]

NOTES:
  1. After logging into the console, please check the
     monitoring status of service components in
     the "Cluster Management". If any service is not
     ready, please wait patiently until all components
     are ready.
  2. Please modify the default password after login.

#####################################################
https://kubesphere.io             20xx-xx-xx xx:xx:xx
#####################################################

Now, you will be able to access the web console of KubeSphere through http://{IP}:30880 with the default account and password admin/[email protected].

Note

To access the console, make sure port 30880 is opened in your security group.

kubesphere-login

Appendix

Image list of KubeSphere v3.0.0

##k8s-images
kubesphere/kube-apiserver:v1.17.9          
kubesphere/kube-scheduler:v1.17.9          
kubesphere/kube-proxy:v1.17.9              
kubesphere/kube-controller-manager:v1.17.9 
kubesphere/kube-apiserver:v1.18.6          
kubesphere/kube-scheduler:v1.18.6          
kubesphere/kube-proxy:v1.18.6              
kubesphere/kube-controller-manager:v1.18.6 
kubesphere/kube-apiserver:v1.16.13         
kubesphere/kube-scheduler:v1.16.13         
kubesphere/kube-proxy:v1.16.13             
kubesphere/kube-controller-manager:v1.16.13
kubesphere/kube-apiserver:v1.15.12         
kubesphere/kube-scheduler:v1.15.12         
kubesphere/kube-proxy:v1.15.12             
kubesphere/kube-controller-manager:v1.15.12
kubesphere/pause:3.1                       
kubesphere/pause:3.2                       
kubesphere/etcd:v3.3.12                    
calico/kube-controllers:v3.15.1            
calico/node:v3.15.1                        
calico/cni:v3.15.1                         
calico/pod2daemon-flexvol:v3.15.1          
coredns/coredns:1.6.9                      
kubesphere/k8s-dns-node-cache:1.15.12      
kubesphere/node-disk-manager:0.5.0         
kubesphere/node-disk-operator:0.5.0        
kubesphere/provisioner-localpv:1.10.0      
kubesphere/linux-utils:1.10.0
kubesphere/nfs-client-provisioner:v3.1.0-k8s1.11

##ks-core-images
kubesphere/ks-apiserver:v3.0.0                  
kubesphere/ks-console:v3.0.0                    
kubesphere/ks-controller-manager:v3.0.0         
kubesphere/ks-installer:v3.0.0                  
kubesphere/etcd:v3.2.18                         
kubesphere/kubectl:v1.0.0
kubesphere/ks-upgrade:v3.0.0
kubesphere/ks-devops:flyway-v3.0.0                       
redis:5.0.5-alpine                              
alpine:3.10.4                                   
haproxy:2.0.4                                   
mysql:8.0.11                                    
nginx:1.14-alpine                               
minio/minio:RELEASE.2019-08-07T01-59-21Z        
minio/mc:RELEASE.2019-08-07T23-14-43Z           
mirrorgooglecontainers/defaultbackend-amd64:1.4 
kubesphere/nginx-ingress-controller:0.24.1      
osixia/openldap:1.3.0                           
csiplugin/snapshot-controller:v2.0.1            
kubesphere/kubefed:v0.3.0                       
kubesphere/tower:v0.1.0                         
kubesphere/prometheus-config-reloader:v0.38.3   
kubesphere/prometheus-operator:v0.38.3          
prom/alertmanager:v0.21.0                       
prom/prometheus:v2.20.1                         
kubesphere/node-exporter:ks-v0.18.1             
jimmidyson/configmap-reload:v0.3.0              
kubesphere/notification-manager-operator:v0.1.0 
kubesphere/notification-manager:v0.1.0          
kubesphere/metrics-server:v0.3.7                
kubesphere/kube-rbac-proxy:v0.4.1               
kubesphere/kube-state-metrics:v1.9.6

##ks-logging-images                 
kubesphere/elasticsearch-oss:6.7.0-1      
kubesphere/elasticsearch-curator:v5.7.6 
kubesphere/fluentbit-operator:v0.2.0       
kubesphere/fluentbit-operator:migrator     
kubesphere/fluent-bit:v1.4.6             
elastic/filebeat:6.7.0  
kubesphere/kube-auditing-operator:v0.1.0   
kubesphere/kube-auditing-webhook:v0.1.0    
kubesphere/kube-events-exporter:v0.1.0     
kubesphere/kube-events-operator:v0.1.0     
kubesphere/kube-events-ruler:v0.1.0        
kubesphere/log-sidecar-injector:1.1
docker:19.03

##istio-images
istio/citadel:1.4.8                         
istio/galley:1.4.8                          
istio/kubectl:1.4.8                         
istio/mixer:1.4.8                           
istio/pilot:1.4.8                           
istio/proxyv2:1.4.8                         
istio/sidecar_injector:1.4.8                
jaegertracing/jaeger-agent:1.17             
jaegertracing/jaeger-collector:1.17         
jaegertracing/jaeger-operator:1.17.1        
jaegertracing/jaeger-query:1.17
jaegertracing/jaeger-es-index-cleaner:1.17.1

##ks-devops-images
jenkins/jenkins:2.176.2                     
jenkins/jnlp-slave:3.27-1                   
kubesphere/jenkins-uc:v3.0.0                
kubesphere/s2ioperator:v2.1.1               
kubesphere/s2irun:v2.1.1                    
kubesphere/builder-base:v2.1.0              
kubesphere/builder-nodejs:v2.1.0            
kubesphere/builder-maven:v2.1.0             
kubesphere/builder-go:v2.1.0                
kubesphere/s2i-binary:v2.1.0                
kubesphere/tomcat85-java11-centos7:v2.1.0   
kubesphere/tomcat85-java11-runtime:v2.1.0   
kubesphere/tomcat85-java8-centos7:v2.1.0    
kubesphere/tomcat85-java8-runtime:v2.1.0    
kubesphere/java-11-centos7:v2.1.0           
kubesphere/java-8-centos7:v2.1.0            
kubesphere/java-8-runtime:v2.1.0            
kubesphere/java-11-runtime:v2.1.0           
kubesphere/nodejs-8-centos7:v2.1.0          
kubesphere/nodejs-6-centos7:v2.1.0          
kubesphere/nodejs-4-centos7:v2.1.0          
kubesphere/python-36-centos7:v2.1.0         
kubesphere/python-35-centos7:v2.1.0         
kubesphere/python-34-centos7:v2.1.0         
kubesphere/python-27-centos7:v2.1.0
kubesphere/notification:flyway_v2.1.2       
kubesphere/notification:v2.1.2              
kubesphere/alert-adapter:v3.0.0             
kubesphere/alerting-dbinit:v3.0.0           
kubesphere/alerting:v2.1.2

##openpitrix-images
openpitrix/generate-kubeconfig:v0.5.0       
openpitrix/openpitrix:flyway-v0.5.0         
openpitrix/openpitrix:v0.5.0                
openpitrix/release-app:v0.5.0

##example-images
kubesphere/examples-bookinfo-productpage-v1:1.13.0
kubesphere/examples-bookinfo-reviews-v1:1.13.0
kubesphere/examples-bookinfo-reviews-v2:1.13.0
kubesphere/examples-bookinfo-reviews-v3:1.13.0
kubesphere/examples-bookinfo-details-v1:1.13.0
kubesphere/examples-bookinfo-ratings-v1:1.13.0
busybox:1.31.1
joosthofman/wget:1.0
kubesphere/netshoot:v1.0
nginxdemos/hello:plain-text
wordpress:4.8-apache
mirrorgooglecontainers/hpa-example:latest
java:openjdk-8-jre-alpine
fluent/fluentd:v1.4.2-2.0
perl:latest

##csi-images
csiplugin/csi-neonsan:v1.2.0 
csiplugin/csi-neonsan-ubuntu:v1.2.0
csiplugin/csi-neonsan-centos:v1.2.0
csiplugin/csi-provisioner:v1.5.0
csiplugin/csi-attacher:v2.1.1
csiplugin/csi-resizer:v0.4.0
csiplugin/csi-snapshotter:v2.0.1
csiplugin/csi-node-driver-registrar:v1.2.0
csiplugin/csi-qingcloud:v1.2.0